Do I have a weak immune system?

In this new world that we find ourselves, it goes without saying that it is more important than ever to support our immune systems in any way we can, and to take active steps to stay healthy.

While we must all, of course, take the very necessary precautions of wearing our masks, washing our hands and practising social distancing, it is equally important to bolster our bodies’ natural defences, should those “invaders” still find a way in.

If you have noticed that you are prone to feeling tired without an obvious cause, or perhaps you regularly feel under the weather, it may mean that your immune system is under strain or has been weakened.

What are the signs of a weak immune system?

Everybody is different and, if you have concerns about your health you should always consult a qualified doctor. However, here are just a few of the main warning signs that your immune system may be compromised, as well as top tips on what you can do to give it a boost.

1. You regularly suffer from “colds” and infections

If it feels like you always have a cold, it is a good sign that your immune system is struggling. While it is completely normal for adults to have the sniffles from time to time throughout the year, the average is two or three infections. If you are experiencing cold symptoms more often than that, or it takes you longer than around a week to bounce back, your immune system could be described as weakened.

During an active cold, it usually takes a fully-functioning immune system approximately 3 to 4 days to develop the required antibodies to fight off the illness. However, if you are constantly catching colds (or have chronic colds that just won’t budge), that is a very clear sign that your immune system is struggling.

Similarly, if you seem to be beleaguered with other types of infections on a regular basis, such as Candida albicans, your immune system might be sending you signals that it needs help. A compromised immune system in the gut, specifically, can have consquences for our ability to fend off opporunitistic pathogens of this type, that are just waiting for a dip in gut flora to spread and take hold.

Other common infections that might flag a weakened immune system when experienced on a regular basis include:

  • ear infections
  • pneumonia
  • and chronic sinusitis.

2. You have digestive issues

The gut comprises a major part of the body’s immune system (as much as 70%). If you find that you regularly experience digestive complaints (such as stomach pain, constipation, diarrhoea, wind or bloating), it could be a sign that your immune system is compromised.

This is because levels of friendly bacteria and microorganisms that naturally occur in the gut, which help to defend your body from viruses, bacteria and other pathogens, can be lowered during times of illness, use of medication, times of stress etc. If your microbiome is compromised, so too will be your immune system. And you experience the symptoms mentioned above, because lower numbers of good bacteria can directly impact other aspects such as digestion, inflammation and vulnerability to attack – thereby creating a viscious circle.

3. Your wounds are slow to heal

If your immune system is weakened, it can affect a number of other processes and systems around the body, as vital energy and nutrients are diverted to work harder to protect you. For example, your skin goes into damage control mode after you have a cut or scrape. Your body works to protect the wound by sending nutrient-rich blood to the injury to help regenerate new skin. This healing essential healing process depends on healthy immune cells, but if your immune system is weakened, your skin can’t regenerate as it should. Instead, it takes longer and (once again) leaves you more vulnerable to infection.

4. Your stress levels are high

You will no doubt be aware, and will have experienced first hand, that high levels of stress can run you down. Continuous stress then has the unfortunate effect of compromising your immune system further, creating a cycle of compromised immunity. You feel stressed, you get run down, which then leads to heightened stress as you find it harder to cope with your day, and so on.

Put simply, long-term stress weakens the natural responses of your immune system by lowering lymphocyte levels (the white blood cells that help fight off infection). The lower your lymphocyte levels, the more you are at risk of infection.

5. You feel tired all the time

If you feel chronically fatigued, without obvious cause, your body is definitely trying to tell you something. A compromised immune system can directly impact energy levels, as your body attempts to conserve energy to ensure it can fuel your defence against invaders.

So you’ve worked out that you have a weak immune system. Now what can you do about it?

How can I boost my immune system?

There are a number of simple steps that you can take to boost your immune system naturally and effectively:

  • Eat a nutrient-rich diet – eating a diet that is rich in a wide variety of natural, seasonal (preferably organic) whole foods, is a key way to protect and strengthen your immune system. This is because it will give your body all the nutrients that are essential for a optimally functioning immune system, such as vitamin C, vitamin D, essential fatty acids, antioxidants etc. Where necessary, perhaps supplement your diet with additional vitamins, minerals and other essential nutrients that you may be concerned are lacking in your diet.
  • Get enough sleep – allowing your body to rest and repair is a very obvious, yet easy and effective, way to support a weakened immune system.
  • Exercise regularly – the other side of the coin is getting regular exercise. Not only does the strengthen the body, it also offers a highly effective means of body detoxification, through the movement of lymph around the body (the fluid that flows through the lymphatic system, that contains white blood cells).
  • Maintain a healthy weight – it seems very likely that obesity is a key factor in adverse response to COVID-19 infections. But aside from COVID, maintaining a healthy weight is a key aspect in maintaining a healthy body generally, with a strong immune system that is fit and able to fight off infections of all kinds.
  • Don’t smoke or over-indulge – try to make good choices on a daily basis and don’t make it harder for your body to function at it’s best. Indulging in smoking, drinking in excess, unhealthy foods etc is only going to compromise your immune system if done on a regular basis.
  • Try to minimise stress – perhaps easier said than done, try to avoid stressful situations wherever possible and increase activities that make you feel good. Exercise will help to release endorphins, and activities like yoga and Tai Chi have been shown to actively increase T-cell counts.

A strong immune system is the key to good health and longevity, so the more you can do to protect it, the better.

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How do I balance my gut flora?

Do I have dysbiosis?

Dysbiosis refers to a microbial imbalance on or within the body; in other words, an imbalance of good versus bad bacteria.

It most often occurs in the digestive tract (leading to unpleasant symptoms, such as bloating, excessive wind, IBS symptoms etc). However, it can also present on any exposed surface or mucous membrane, such as in the vagina, lungs, nose, sinuses, ears, nails or eyes.

For the purposes of this post, we will focus on intestinal dysbiosis, where digestion is compromised.

Toxic bowels and overall declining health can often be caused by diminishing levels of friendly bowel flora, coupled with and caused by the overgrowth of harmful bacteria and parasites, such as Candida albicans.

Bacterial enzymes can deactivate digestive enzymes in the gut (essential for the proper digestion of food and absorption of nutrients) and convert human bile or components of food into chemicals, which promote the development of diseases. Some by-products of bacterial enzyme activity, like ammonia, also hinder normal brain function and various other essential processes in the body. These by-products, when absorbed, need to be processed by the liver, placing it under additional strain.

What can cause this imbalance?

An imbalance in bowel flora can be caused by the proliferation of pathogenic parasites, yeast and/or bacteria and can have any number of specific causes. For example:

  • stress
  • illness
  • poor digestion (including low levels of digestive enzymes, constipation and other bowel disorders)
  • chemical exposure
  • poor diet
  • overuse of medication (including antibiotics and birth control pills)
  • mercury, for instance, in dental amalgams, may also have a role to play. It is thought that mercury can cause mutations in intestinal bacteria. These bacteria (either directly or indirectly) can then lead to the formation of small holes in the gut lining, which in turn has the potential to lead to dysbiosis and “leaky gut syndrome”.   

Dysbiosis is also often an underlying condition in people who are generally unwell, but is either misdiagnosed, not diagnosed at all or simply dismissed as a non-existent condition. However, natural health experts are generally in agreement that the health of your gut has a direct impact on your overall health. How can it not, when your digestive tract is where you take in nutrients and eliminate waste which, if left in the body too long, can become toxic and a breeding ground for harmful bacteria.

As such, dysbiosis has been associated with a number of health conditions, such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) (e.g. Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis), chronic fatigue syndrome, yeast infections and rheumatoid arthritis.

How do you know if your intestines are healthy?

If you have intestinal dysbiosis, you are likely to experience one or more of the following signs:

  • fatigue
  • headaches
  • intestinal upsets
  • stomach ache
  • bloating
  • cramping
  • wind
  • heartburn
  • burping
  • constipation
  • and/or diarrhoea. 

One of the main reasons for mis- or non-diagnosis of this condition is that these symptoms fit with many other conditions. For example, Candida albicans (also known as “the yeast syndrome”). This is because Candida is actually a form of dysbiosis.

Dysbiosis is just an umbrealla term, which reflects the fact that yeast organisms aren’t the only intestinal parasites that can cause these symptoms. In fact, intestinal bacteria or viruses may be the primary cause of some of these illnesses, not yeast. However, the most serious dysbiosis cases are likely to involve both yeast and harmful bacteria in the intestines.

How do you reset your gut?

It is perfectly achievable to re-balance your bowel flora, with careful attention to your diet (including supplementation) and lifestyle.

However, it should be noted that after suffering intestinal diseases, the body may be vulnerable to other infections, both bacterial and viral. As such, treatment of dysbiosis would be sensible as part of any overarching treatment of intestinal infections.

One suggested approach is to remove all sources of carbohydrates from the diet, as the molecular structure of these foods is too large for direct entry into the bloodstream.

When diseased intestines are inflamed from the effects of dysbiosis, they cannot break down the molecules that are too large to be transported across the small intestinal surface into the bloodstream. Instead of entering the bloodstream, the undigested starch and sugar molecules serve as a continual source of food for bacteria and fungi. By removing starches and sugars, dysbiosis may possibly be corrected.

However, it is important not to make any drastic dietary changes (such as the complete elimination of a food group) without first consulting a nutritionist, dietitian or GP.

It is also recommended to “crowd out” bad bacteria and other pathogens, by taking in high amounts of friendly bacteria in the form of probiotic supplements. While probiotic foods can certainly be beneficial as part of the revised diet, these probiotics do not tend to colonise the digestive tract (unlike probiotic supplements, which do). It is important to increase numbers of healthy bowel flora for the long-term; not just during the process of digestion.

As such, high-strength multi-strain probiotics can offer support.

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How antibiotics affect the gut

Good health begins in the gut

Many health experts agree that good health begins with balance in the body, particularly in the digestive system.

Inside our bodies there are twenty times more bacteria than living cells, and maintaining the correct balance of good bacteria versus bad bacteria is a crucial part of avoiding illness and supporting long-term health and vitality.

Having the right kind of bacteria (so-called “friendly bacteria”), in sufficient quantities, is essential for everything from healthy digestion and nutrient absorption, to immunity and defence against infections.

What can disrupt the balance of gut flora?

The delicate balance of healthy bowel flora can be disrupted by a number of things, including excess intake of alcohol, a diet high in sugar, poor digestion, stress, as well as exposure to toxins and environmental pollutants. For the purposes of this article, we will look in more detail at one of the most common causes of bowel flora imbalance – the long-term or frequent use of antibiotics.

How do antibiotics affect the gut?

It is now generally accepted that antibiotics have historically been prescribed and used far more than they should be. While this is in the process of slowly changing, the result has sadly been an upsurge in antibiotic resistance – a type of drug resistance where a microorganism is able to survive exposure to an antibiotic.

What’s more, one of the most notable effects of antibiotics is their adverse impact on the digestive system and the balance of gut flora – they indiscriminately destroy both good and bad bacteria in the body. They work by either killing bacteria or by preventing bacteria from growing – obviously good in terms of bad bacteria, but bad in terms of friendly bacteria.

This is somewhat ironic, when you consider that people are taking antibiotics in the first place because they are ill, but their medicine is destroying one of the body’s primary lines of natural defence. In fact, what is arguably the most important part of the immune system resides in the gut – Gut Associated Lymphoid Tissue (special antibody-producing cells) work hard to prevent unwanted micro-organisms (such as bacteria and viruses) from entering the body.  

Of course, antibiotics have their role to play and can certainly be highly effective in resolving bacterial infections. However, it is important to use them sensibly, in moderation and to support your levels of beneficial bacteria both during and after a course.

Too many bad bugs

If your levels of good bacteria fall, you provide opportunistic ‘nasties’ (like bacteria, parasites and yeasts) with an excellent environment in which to thrive and spread.

An overgrowth of harmful gut flora (called dysbiosis), for example, increases gut toxicity and can result in a number of unpleasant symptoms and conditions, including:

  • bloating
  • constipation
  • diarrhoea
  • abdominal pains after eating
  • wind
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
  • Leaky Gut Syndrome
  • and Candida overgrowth.

This is one of the reasons why antibiotic courses often result in thrush (a fungal infection caused by Candida overgrowth).

How to support the good guys

Research has shown that the damage done to the digestive tract by antibiotics can last far longer than was previously thought.

Stanford University researchers in America analysed the levels of friendly bacteria in three healthy adult women both before and after each of two cycles on the antibiotic Cipro. Following the first cycle, they found that the drug had altered the population of the subjects’ friendly gut bacteria significantly, perhaps even permanently. Following the second cycle, six months later, they discovered that the effect was exponentially greater.

As such, antibiotics should never be used as a regular “quick fix” for minor ailments and, wherever possible, long courses should be avoided. Where a course of antibiotics is unavoidable, you can support your levels of friendly bacteria through diet and probiotic supplements.

For instance, many cultures have observed the health-supporting effects of fermented foods (often referred to as “probiotic foods”) and so include them as a regular part of their diet. These foods include kefir, sauerkraut, miso, tofu and tempeh to name just a few. Including these foods in your diet on a daily basis is a good way to promote healthy intestinal flora.

However, it is worth noting that most of these foods do not contain strains of bacteria that can actually colonise the digestive tract. Instead, they do good work for a week or two and then pass through.

Supplementing with strains of good bacteria that can colonise the digestive tract (such as L. acidophilus, L. salivarius, B. infantis, B. bifidum, B. brevis and B. longum) is arguably a more effective and powerful means of supporting healthy levels of gut flora for the long term.

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Why do I have bad breath?

What is bad breath?

Bad breath can come in many forms, levels of severity and can even be triggered by many a wide range of factors.

Simply speaking, it is an unpleasant odour eminating from the breath of a person. Chronic bad breath is referred to as halitosis. Less commonly, it is also called fetor oris, ozostomia or stomatodysodia.

What causes bad breath?

Often identifying the cause of bad breath is the first step towards treating this entirely preventable condition. As mentioned above, it can be caused by a wide variety of things. For example, smoking, dry mouth, a medical condition (such as diabetes) or diet (for example, a diet high in protein or other acid-forming foods, eating garlic and onions or drinking too much coffee or alcohol).

The most common causes of bad breath are preventable and easily treated. However, in some cases, chronic halitosis may indicate an underlying problem in the stomach or digestive system. It is this potential cause that will be considered below.

The digestive system

The digestive tract extends all the way from the mouth right through to the anus. It therefore makes sense that any problems in the digestive tract (such as Irritable Bowel Syndrome, for example – see below), can result in bad breath. As such, it is possible for anyone to suffer from halitosis (including both vegetarians and those who eat meat).

Stomach, intestinal and bowel problems may all be a contributing factor to bad breath. Digestion begins in the mouth. Saliva has digestive enzymes which begin the digestion process, and the type of food eaten can affect the food chemistry of the mouth. Saliva will also pick up odours from food within several hours after it has been eaten. Odours are strongest from carbohydrates (sugars, starches and cellulose), less strong from proteins and non-existent from fats. Bacteria in the mouth react with the decaying food and drink residue and can be the source of foul odour.

Digestive enzymes and nutrition

Digestive enzymes become more important as we get older, because their production by the body decreases as we age. A high level of the naturally-occurring digestive enzymes in foods is also destroyed when they are cooked.

If our bodies are enzyme deficient, they must divert nutrients to manufacture those digestive enzymes, which would otherwise be used to make intracellular enzymes such as catylase and SOD, which protect cells as antioxidants. Lower levels of digestive enzymes can also potentially lead to excess gas formation and putrefaction in the intestines. For some, this can contribute to bad breath gases travelling through the bloodstream and to the lungs, where they are exhaled.

Dairy allergy, lactose intolerance and gluten sensitivity

A dairy allergy or lactose intolerance could also be the cause of bad breath. If you think that this could be the case, you could try eliminating all dairy products from the diet temporarily to see if they are the culprit.

Even if you do not suffer from a dairy allergy or intolerance, some people find that the elimination of dairy products can nonetheless help with the control of bad breath odours. This is because dairy products can thicken mucous in the mouth and contribute to the anaerobic environment bacteria thrive in, leading to the production of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). It also supplies lots of protein used in the breakdown by bacteria to form VSCs.

For those individuals who are intolerant to gluten (a protein composite found in foods processed from wheat and related cereals) and are also suffering from halitosis, it is important to ensure that you are drinking a great deal of water to wash away thick mucous and bacteria and to keep the mouth flowing freely with saliva. This decreases mouth pH and increases oxygen, both of which help control halitosis.

Candida albicans

Candida is an overgrowth of yeast (referred to as candidiasis), which usually starts in the gastrointestinal tract and then gradually spreads to other parts of the body. It is a resilient and invasive parasite, which usually attaches itself to the intestinal wall and can (if left untreated) become a permanent resident of the internal organs. One of the known symptoms of candida is bad breath. This is because an abnormally high level of fungal organisms in the intestines may result in increased fermentation of the carbohydrates you eat. This produces a variety of toxins and gases.  

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic gastrointestinal disorder, which results in unusual sensitivity and muscle activity. It is sometimes referred to as spastic colon, spastic colitis, mucous colitis or nervous stomach and is a functional disorder, where the function of the bowels may be abnormal, but no structural abnormalities exist.

It is widely accepted amongst naturopathic practitioners and other complimentary and alternative health therapists that bad breath can be a sign of long-term problems in the colon. They believe the health of the gastrointestinal system is integral to overall well-being, and support for IBS (and bad breath symptoms) often involves seeking to restore gut health (including a healthy balance of bacteria).

Dysbiosis

In adults, bad breath is often one of the first signs that normal bacteria levels in the gut are imbalanced. Dysbiosis (also sometimes called dysbacteriosis) refers to a microbial imbalance on or within the body; in other words, an imbalance of “good” versus “bad” bacteria. When levels of friendly bacteria in the digestive system are low, partially digested food decays, producing foul gas and toxemia.

Certain health foods, organic products and food-based supplements (such as herbal colon cleansers, high-strength multi-strain probiotics, digestive aids and cleanse and detox supplements) can offer support in resolving bad breath, particularly where this is linked to digestive health.

For more information, visit our main website

Probiotics benefits

What are probiotics?

Probiotics are live micro-organisms (often bacteria) that are thought to have a positive effect on the health of the host organism (i.e. our bodies) and, in particular, digestive tract health. They are more commonly referred to as “friendly bacteria” or “good bacteria.”

Most probiotics are bacteria similar to those naturally found in the gut, especially in those of breastfed infants (who have natural protection against many diseases). Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria are the most common types of microbes used in probiotic supplements, but certain yeasts and bacilli are also used.

Probiotics are commonly consumed as part of fermented foods with specially added active live cultures, such as in yoghurt, soy yoghurt fermented, unfermented milk, miso, tempeh and some juices and soy beverages or as dietary supplements. In probiotic foods and supplements, the bacteria may have been present originally or added during preparation.

Probiotics are not the same thing as prebiotics, which are non-digestible food ingredients that selectively stimulate the growth and/or activity of beneficial microorganisms already in people’s colons – in other words, provide food for the good bacteria. When probiotics and prebiotics are mixed together, they form a synbiotic.

Benefits of probiotics

The world is full of microorganisms and so are our bodies – in and on the skin, in the gut, and in other orifices. Friendly bacteria are crucial to proper development of the immune system, to protection against microorganisms that could cause disease and to the digestion and absorption of food and nutrients. Each person’s mix of bacteria varies. Interactions between a person and the microorganisms in their body, and among the microorganisms themselves, can be crucial to the person’s health and well-being.

Investigations into the benefits of probiotic therapies suggest a range of potentially beneficial uses.

Managing lactose intolerance
Some people use probiotics to ease symptoms of lactose intolerance, a condition in which the gut lacks the enzyme needed to digest large amounts of the major sugar in milk and which also causes gastrointestinal symptoms. As lactic acid bacteria actively convert lactose into lactic acid, ingestion of certain active strains may help lactose intolerant individuals tolerate more lactose than they would have otherwise.

Lowering cholesterol
Studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of a range of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in lowering serum cholesterol levels, presumably by breaking down bile in the gut, thus inhibiting its re-absorption (which enters the blood as cholesterol).

Lowering blood pressure
Clinical trials have indicated that consumption of milk fermented with various strains of LAB may result in reductions in blood pressure. It is thought that this is due to the ACE inhibitor-like peptides produced during fermentation.

Improving immune function and preventing infections
There are cells in the digestive tract connected with the immune system. One theory is that if you alter the microorganisms in a person’s intestinal tract (e.g. by introducing probiotic bacteria), you can affect the immune system’s defences.

A 2010 study suggested that the anecdotal benefits of probiotic therapies as beneficial for preventing secondary infections, a common complication of antibiotic therapy, may be because keeping the immune system primed by eating foods enhanced with “good” bacteria may help counteract the negative effects of sickness and antibiotics. It was thought that antibiotics may turn the immune system “off” while probiotics turns it back on “idle”, and more able to quickly react to new infections.

LAB foods and supplements have been shown to aid in the treatment and prevention of acute diarrhoea and in decreasing the severity and duration of rotavirus infections in children and travellers’ diarrhoea in adults.

Helicobacter pylori
LAB are also thought to aid in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections (which cause peptic ulcers) in adults, when used in combination with standard medical treatments.

Antibiotic-associated diarrhoea
Antibiotics kill friendly bacteria in the gut along with unfriendly bacteria. Probiotics are sometimes used to try to offset side effects from antibiotics like gas, cramping, or diarrhoea. Antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) results from an imbalance in the colonic microbiota caused by antibiotic therapy. Probiotic treatment can reduce the incidence and severity of AAD as indicated in several meta-analyses.

Reducing inflammation
LAB and supplements have been found to modulate inflammatory and hypersensitivity responses. Clinical studies suggest that they can prevent reoccurrences of inflammatory bowel disease in adults, as well as improve milk allergies.

Improving mineral absorption
It is thought that probiotic lactobacilli may help correct malabsorption of trace minerals, found particularly in those with diets high in phytate content from whole grains, nuts, and legumes.

Preventing harmful bacterial growth under stress
In a study done to see the effects of stress on intestinal flora, rats that were fed probiotics had little occurrence of harmful bacteria latched onto their intestines compared to rats that were fed sterile water.

Irritable bowel syndrome and colitis
Certain probiotics have been found to improve symptoms of IBS and to be safe in treating ulcerative colitis.

Managing urogenital health
Several in vitro studies have revealed probiotics’ potential in relieving urinary tract infections and bacterial vaginosis.

Other facts about probiotics

Did you know:

  • There are 10x more bacteria in our gut than there are cells in our body and if you gathered together all of your gut bacteria they would weigh approximately 1 kg or 2.2 lb.
  • An imbalance in our gut bacteria can sometimes occur during times of stress.
  • In order to protect us from getting food poisoning, our bodies are designed to stop the bacteria that we eat from getting into our gut. This is one reason why our stomach is very acidic.
  • Probiotics are considered safe for people of all ages unless they have a condition that has harmed their immune system such as cancer or HIV. Specific advice should be sought from a doctor or dietician.

How do probiotics work?

When we consume probiotics they start to compete with bad bacteria and pathogens for space and for food – therefore evicting them from our gut. Probiotics also stimulate our own immune system to enable it to fight infections better, as well as help us to digest fibre from our diet and in doing so they produce acid compounds that keep the lining of our gut healthy.

“Unfriendly” microorganisms (such as disease-causing bacteria, yeasts, fungi and parasites) can upset the balance of bacteria in our bodies. At the start of the 20th century, probiotics were thought to be beneficial to the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance, thus inhibiting pathogens and toxin producing bacteria. Today, specific health effects are being investigated and documented including alleviation of chronic intestinal inflammatory diseases, prevention and treatment of pathogen-induced diarrhoea, urogenital infections and atopic diseases.

Researchers are exploring whether probiotics could halt these unfriendly agents in the first place and/or suppress their growth and activity in conditions like:

  • infectious diarrhoea
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
  • inflammatory bowel disease (e.g., ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease)
  • infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a bacterium that causes most ulcers and many types of chronic stomach inflammation
  • tooth decay and periodontal disease
  • vaginal infections
  • stomach and respiratory infections that children acquire
  • skin infections
  • and many others.

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Could I have Candida?

What is Candida albicans?

Candida (also sometimes referred to as a thrush, yeast or fungal infection) is a single cell, plant-like fungi. It starts life as a yeast, which everybody has in their digestive systems and other mucous membranes from birth. It also lives on the skin.

In terms of how it acts in the body, Candida is an overgrowth of yeast (referred to as Candidiasis) that usually starts in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and gradually spreads to other parts of the body. It is a resilient and invasive parasite, which usually attaches itself to the intestinal wall and can (if left untreated) become a permanent resident of the internal organs.

You might be surprised to learn that recorded incidences of Candida overgrowth date back as far as the 1700s. Hippocrates identified the presence of yeast infections as thrush in patients.

What are some of the known causes of Candida?

When all is well, the Candida yeast is kept under control by the healthy flora that we have in our bodies and, more particularly, in our digestive tract (sometimes referred to as “friendly” or “good” bacteria). In this way, it normally co-exists with many other types of bacteria, in a state of balance.

For instance, Candida albicans is part of the normal flora of the mucous membranes of the female genital areas, gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, which cause no disease. However, overgrowth of this species may be the cause of infections that could include thrush (oropharyngeal Candidiasis) and vaginal Candidiasis (vulvovaginal candidiasis).

Unfortunately, the modern diet, lifestyle and environment are not always conducive to healthy bacterial growth. We are exposed to an ever-increasing amount of toxins and junk foods on a daily basis, as well as stress in our lifestyles and pollution and chemicals in the air we breathe and the water we drink.

It is thought that overgrowth of yeast tends mainly to occur in those with weakened immune systems or those whose levels of good bacteria have diminished as a result of some external factor (e.g. through stress, disease (such as diabetes), pregnancy and/or the use of antibiotics, birth control pills, steroids or other long-term medication).

When the body’s defences are weakened, it provides fungus with optimum conditions to grow. This allows Candida to enter the bloodstream, travelling through the body to colonise areas such as the urinary tract, vagina, tissue, nails, mouth, skin and other organs.

Once such overgrowth has begun, if not diagnosed and treated appropriately and promptly, it can result in a chronic systemic problem. It is thought that large numbers of yeast germs can weaken the immune system further, thereby perpetuating the problem.

Candida has the ability to produce around 75 toxic substances that can poison the human body. These toxins are believed to contaminate tissue and weaken the immune system, glands, kidneys, bladder, lungs, liver, brain and then the nervous system.

What are some of the symptoms of Candida?

Overgrowth of Candida can lead to a number of unpleasant symptoms, including:

  • fatigue
  • sugar cravings
  • brain fog
  • allergies
  • blurred vision
  • depression
  • digestive problems
  • joint discomfort
  • muscle pain
  • chronic diarrhoea
  • yeast vaginitis
  • bladder infections
  • menstrual problems
  • and constipation.

A Candida diet

It is widely advocated by natural health practitioners that people suffering from a Candida overgrowth might benefit from eliminating certain foods from their diet, restoring gut health and altering their lifestyle.

Some yeast is always present in the digestive system, but its growth is kept in check by way of the balance of good and bad bacteria in the gut. This is thought to be assisted by a diet which maintains correct acid/alkaline characteristics.

Therefore, a diet dominated by high sugar intake (which the yeast demands to maintain its presence and growth) and foods containing yeasts or fungi (such as mushrooms, cheese and milk) can lead to a disturbance of this delicate balance.

Supplements can also offer much needed support. For instance, to alkalise the body, remedy disbiosis (by helping to increase numbers of good bacteria) and to elimiate parasites and other pathogens. High-strength, multi-strain probiotics, anti-fungals, digestive enzymes and plant-based powders are all possible additions to support a Candida diet.

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